The effects of co-targeting pathways on the spatial expression of pERK in NB + 12 SMGs. In control SMGs (A), pERK immunostaining is mostly absent. mCMV-infected SMGs (B) are characterized by a marked increase in pERK expression in stromal cells (arrowheads) compared to control (compare B to A). In GEF-treated, mCMV-infected SMGs treated with U0126 beginning on day 6 (C) or U0126-treated, mCMV-infected SMGs treated with GEF beginning on day 6 (D), pERK immunoreactivity is seen in stromal cells (arrowheads) (compare C, D to A). The addition of aciclovir treatment beginning on day 6 to GEF-treated SMGs (E) or U0126-treated, mCMV-infected SMGs (F) results in the near absence of pERK immunoreactivity which closely resembles controls (compare E, F to A). Bar: A-B, E-F- 50 μm; C-D- 55 μm.