Mechanisms by which CMV can induce host immunopathology. A; CMV-induced autoantibody production. B; Enhanced inflammation caused by the virus. C; CMV-induced vascular damage and vessel thickening. D; CMV-induced immunosuppression. TLR7/9; toll-like receptor 7/9, PDC; plasmacytoid dendritic cell, SMC; smooth muscle cell, 5-LO; 5-lypooxygenase, cox-2, cyclooxygenase-2, PGE2; prostaglandin E2, LTB4; leukotriene B4, MIF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIP-1α; macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, MIP-1β; macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, VCAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, PDGF; platelet-derived-growth factor, vIL-10; virally encoded IL-10. Modified from: Varani et al. "Cytomegalovirus-induced autoimmunity" in "Autoimmune Disorders: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment". Editor: M.E. Petrov. ISBN: 978-1-61761-552-8; © 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.