Elicitation of innate immune response in EBV infection. EBV dUTPase and GP350 act as ligands for TLR2. EBV EBERs can mount innate immune responses via both TLR3 and RIG-I signaling pathways. Infection of EBV also activates TLR9 signaling leading to IFNα production in pDCs. In latency, EBV manipulates the TLR7/IRF5 signaling pathway, which promotes cell proliferation. EBV products are indicated in red fonts.