RCMV induces apoptosis of SMCs in the media layer of the aortic allografts. Bar charts show the Apoptotic Index of SMCs presented as the number of apoptotic SMCs per cross section in media (A) and intima (B) of infected and uninfected allografts (controls). Apoptotic SMCs were detected with double immunostaining for SM-α-actin and caspase 3. Both at 2 and 8 weeks after transplantation there was a significant increase of apoptotic SMCs in the media of infected allografts vs. uninfected controls. *p < 0.05 vs.control at 8 weeks. ***p < 0.001 vs.control at 2 weeks.